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  • Writer's pictureAku Energija

Zajtrk je zares pomemben - pravita tako TKM kot sodobne znanstvene raziskave

Updated: Jan 1, 2023

Zaužiti moramo manj kalorij kot jih porabimo. To je mantra večine diet za hujšanje. Toda zakaj je ta pristop tako pogosto neuspešen?

Ko govorimo o zdravi prehrani, se večina ljudi osredotoča le na to, KAJ jesti. Ne glede na to, ali gre za nadzor telesne teže, lajšanje simptomov IBS, zmanjševanje želodčne kisline ali za krepitev splošnega zdravja, je pomembno tudi, KDAJ jeste. To dobro pojasnjujeta tisočletna modrost tradicionalne kitajske medicine in moderna znanstvena raziskava. Raziskovalci, ki preučujejo cirkadiani sistem (notranjo biološko uro), so začeli preučevati učinke časa obroka na naše zdravje. Dokazi potrjujejo trditve tradicionalne kitajske medicine in kažejo, da lahko zgodnejše uživanje obrokov v dnevu pripomore k zmanjšanju telesne teže in k zmanjšanju tveganja za kronične bolezni.

Bioritmi imajo pomembno vlogo pri tem, kako telo obdela hrano. Če se prehranjujete v skladu s cirkadianimi ritmi - notranjo uro našega telesa, ki vas usmerja k prebujanju in spanju -, to samodejno pripomore k vašemu zdravju. S tem telo dobi gorivo za zagon, delovanje sistema in nato čas za počitek in okrevanje. Takoj ko se zbudite, vaše telo potrebuje energijo. Če ne pojeste dobrega zajtrka, si bo vaše telo izposodilo energijo iz vaše energijske rezerve (ledvic ali esence, jing) ter na dolgi rok razvilo težave.

Ne preskočite zajtrka!

Po podatkih Ameriškega združenja za srce (AHA) imajo ljudje, ki izpuščajo zajtrk, večjo verjetnost, da bodo zboleli za sladkorno boleznijo, boleznimi srca in povišanim holesterolom. Časovno razporejanje energijskega vnosa oz. časovni vzorec prehranjevanja lahko izboljša zdravje. Uživanje večje količine energije prej in manjše količine energije pozneje v dnevu, vedenjski cirkadiani ritem lahko pripomore k izboljšanju kroničnega stanja. Namen izboljšanja kroničnega ritma je izboljšati usklajenost (sinhronizacijo) bioloških in vedenjskih cirkadianih ritmov [1]. Visokokalorični zajtrk z zmanjšanim vnosom pri večerji je koristen in je lahko koristna alternativa za obvladovanje debelosti in presnovnega sindroma [2], medtem ko je izpuščanje zajtrka povezano s povečanim tveganjem za obolevnost in umrljivost zaradi bolezni srca in ožilja ter smrti zaradi vseh vzrokov [3].

TKM telesna ura in optimizacija delovanja telesa

Izraz 養生 Yang Sheng pomeni hranjenje življenja. Da bi to dosegli, moramo spoštovati svoj naravni ritem in se z njim uskladiti. V skladu s TKM naše telo deluje kot ura, pri čemer so določene funkcije močnejše ali šibkejše, saj se energija čez dan spreminja in pretaka. Vsak sistem ima svoj čas za optimalno delovanje in z upoštevanjem te ure lahko izkoristimo številne koristi za zdravje.

Od 5. do 7. ure, 卯時, je debelo črevo najbolj aktivno. Če ste zgodnja ptica, je priporočljivo, da spijete majhno količino tople vode, naredite nekaj nežnih razteznih vaj, nato pa greste na stranišče in izpraznite črevesje. Z zgodnjim čiščenjem odpadkov je naš prebavni sistem pripravljen na nov vnos hrane.

Energija želodca je najmočnejša med 7. in 9. uro, 辰時, zato je to najboljši čas dneva, da telesu zagotovite kakovostno gorivo. Hrana naj bo topla, hranljiva in uravnotežena. Tukaj je nekaj predlogov:

Od 9. do 11. ure, 已時, glavno vlogo prevzame vranica in hrana preide na prebavo in absorpcijo. Poleg prebave in regeneracije je vranica tudi sistem, ki čisti kri ter nadzoruje intelektualne dejavnosti. Če preskočite zajtrk in ob 10.30 posežete po kavi in sladkem ali mastnem prigrizku, zmotite delovanje vranice, kar povzroči prebavne motnje, pomanjkanje koncentracije in težave pri nadzoru telesne teže.

Opoldanski počitek okoli poldneva, ki mu sledi največji obrok dneva - kosilo

Opoldne je najvišja energijska točka, ko prevladuje jang, srce pa je na vrhuncu svojega delovanja okoli 11. do 13. ure, 午時. Da bi se izognili pretirani stimulaciji, si vzemite kratek odmor, globoko dihajte in zaprite oči, da nahranite energijo jin ter jo uravnovesite z energijo jang.

Kosilo naj bo vaš največji obrok dneva, najbolj optimalno je, da ga pojeste okoli poldneva. Jejte vročo hrano s polnozrnatimi žiti, veliko kuhane zelenjave, z majhno porcijo mesa in nekaj sezonskega sadja.

Energija tankega črevesa doseže vrhunec med 13. in 15. uro, 未時, kajti takrat poteka večina absorpcije hranil. Po kosilu opravite nekaj lahkega dela in se izogibajte intenzivni telesni aktivnosti, ki bi lahko zmotila prebavni sistem.

15. do 17. ura, 申時, je čas mehurja, ki je najdaljši meridian telesa in je povezan z vsemi drugimi sistemi. To je čas, ko je naša presnova najbolj aktivna. Izkoristite produktivni čas za svoje delo ali študij. Če je mogoče, v teh urah opravite športni trening.

Večerja naj bo zgodnja in lahka - vendar nekaj le pojejte

Do večera se dnevna svetloba postopoma izginja in telo potrebuje varovalni mehanizem, da se umiri po živahnem dnevu. Zdaj je čas, da se sprostimo od celodnevnega dela in nežno nahranimo telo. Delovanje ledvic je na vrhuncu med 17. in 19. uro, 酉時. Ledvični sistem je glavna energijska rezerva, ki je odgovorna za našo genetsko, reproduktivno funkcijo, spomin in staranje. Do tega časa končajte z delom in se nagradite z lahkim večernim obrokom. Sestava je lahko podobna sestavi kosila, vendar manj mastna in v manjši porciji.

Upravljanje s časom in organizacija sta ključnega pomena

Za mnoge ljudi je začetek dneva z zajtrkom "težaven", saj jim primanjkuje časa ali apetita. Z malo organizacije je mogoče to težavo zlahka odpraviti. Pomanjkanje apetita je lahko znak šibkega prebavnega sistema, zato je še toliko bolj pomembno, da dan začnete z nežno prehrano. Če imate težave z idejami, kaj jesti za zajtrk ali ne morete pogoltniti veliko hrane, je lahko dobra izbira kozarec toplega riževega mleka ali majhna skleda prosene kaše. Poskusite kombinirati z akupunkturo in kitajsko zeliščno medicino za ponastavitev in ponovno prilagoditev sistemskih funkcij in kmalu se bo cirkadiani sistem lahko obnovil.


  1. Hollie A. Raynor, Fan Li, Chelsi Cardoso, Daily pattern of energy distribution and weight loss, Physiology & Behavior, Volume 192, 2018, Pages 167-172, ISSN 0031-9384, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.physbeh.2018.02.036.

  2. Jakubowicz, D., Barnea, M., Wainstein, J. and Froy, O. (2013), High Caloric intake at breakfast vs. dinner differentially influences weight loss of overweight and obese women. Obesity, 21: 2504-2512. https://doi.org/10.1002/oby.20460

  3. Ofori-Asenso R, Owen AJ, Liew D. Skipping Breakfast and the Risk of Cardiovascular Disease and Death: A Systematic Review of Prospective Cohort Studies in Primary Prevention Settings. J Cardiovasc Dev Dis. 2019 Aug 22;6(3):30. doi: 10.3390/jcdd6030030. PMID: 31443394; PMCID: PMC6787634.

 

Breakfast is indeed important- said both TCM and modern scientific research

Calories consumed should be less than calories burned. That’s the mantra for most weight-loss diets. Why, then, does this approach so often fail?

When we talk about a healthy diet, most people just focus on WHAT to eat. Whether it is weight control, relieving IBS symptoms, reducing stomach acid or boosting overall health, WHEN you eat also matters. And this is well explained in the thousand year wisdom of Traditional Chinese medicine and the morden scientific research. Researchers investigating the circadian system (internal biological clock) have started looking at the effects of mealtime on our health. Evidence supports the claims of TCM, indicating that eating meals earlier in the day might help promote weight loss and reduce the risk of chronic disease.

Biorhythms play an important role in how the body handles food. Eating in tune with the circadian rhythms—our body's inner clock that guides you to wake and sleep—automatically helps your health. By doing so, the body get the fuel to start, make the system up and running then allow time to rest and recover. As soon as you wake up, your body needs energy. If you don’t eat a good breakfast, your body is going to borrow the energy from your energy reserve (the Kidney or Essence, Jing) and develop issues in the long run.

Don't Skip Breakfast!

According to the American Heart Association (AHA), people who skip breakfast are more likely to have diabetes, heart disease, and high cholesterol. Timing of energy intake, a temporal dietary pattern, may enhance health. Eating a greater amount of energy earlier and a smaller amount of energy later in the day, a behavioral circadian rhythm, may assist with chronoenhancement. Chronoenhancement seeks to enhance entrainment (synchronization) of biological and behavioral circadian rhythms. [1] High-calorie breakfast with reduced intake at dinner is beneficial and might be a useful alternative for the management of obesity and metabolic syndrome [2] while skipping breakfast is associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease morbidity and mortality as well as all-cause death. [3]

The TCM Body Clock And Optimization Of The Body Function

The term 養生 Yang Sheng means nourishing life. To do so, we need to respect and synchronize with our natural rhythm. According to TCM, our bodies run on a clock, where certain functions are stronger or weaker as energy shifts and flows throughout the day. Each system has its time for optimal performance, and we can reap many health benefits by following this clock.

From 05-07, 卯時, the large intestine is the most active. If you are an early bird, it is advisable to drink a small amount of warm water, do some gentle stretching exercises then go to the toilet and empty your guts. By cleaning out the waste early, our digestive system is ready for new intake of food.

The Stomach energy is at its strongest between 07-09, 辰時, this is the best time of day to provide good quality fuel for you body. The food should be warm, nutritious and balanced. Here are some suggestions:

From 09-11, 已時, the Spleen take charge and the food move on to the digestion and absorption. Besides digestion and regeneration, Spleen is also the system that purifies blood and control the intellectual activities. Skipping breakfast and reaching for a coffee and a sugary or greasy snack at 10.30am will disturb the Spleen function, resulting in digestive dysfunction, lack of concentration and weight control challenges.

Midday Rest Around Noon Followed By The Biggest Meal Of The Day- Lunch

Midday marks the highest energy point when the Yang is predominant and the Heart functions at its peak around 11-13, 午時. To avoid overstimulation, take a short break, do some deep breathing and shut your eyes to nourish Yin energy to balance with the Yang.

Lunch should be your biggest meal of the day and it is the most optimal around noon. Eat hot food with whole grains, plenty of cooked vegetables with a small portion of meat and some seasonal fruits.

The Small Intestine energy comes into it’s peak between 13-15, 未時, this is when much of the nutrient absorption takes place. Do some light work after lunch and avoid intensive physical activity that might disturb the digestive system.

15-17, 申時 is the time of the Bladder which is the longest meridian of the body and have connections with all other systems. This is the time when our metabolism is the most active. Make use of the productive time for your work or study. If possible, do some sport training around these hours.

Dinner Should Be Early And Light- but DO EAT something

By the evening, the day light gradual dim and the body needs buffer to calm down from the vigorous day. Now is the time to wind down from the days work and gently nourish the body. The Kidney function is at its peak between 17-19, 酉時. The Kidney system is the main energy reserve that in charge of our genetic, reproductive function, memory and aging. By this time, finish working and reward yourself with a light evening meal. The composition can be similar to the lunch, but less fatty and lower in portion.

Time Management And Organization Is The Key

For many people, starting the day with breakfast is “difficult”, like the lack of time or appetite. It is easy to overcome with a little organization. A lack of appetite can be a sign of a weak digestive system making it all the more important to start your day with gentle nourishment. If you do struggle with ideas of breakfast or can’t swallow much food, a glass of warm rice milk or small bowl of millet congee could be a good choice. Try to combine with acupuncture and Chinese herbal medicine to reset and readjust the systemic functions and soon the circadian system can be restored.


  1. Hollie A. Raynor, Fan Li, Chelsi Cardoso, Daily pattern of energy distribution and weight loss, Physiology & Behavior, Volume 192, 2018, Pages 167-172, ISSN 0031-9384, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.physbeh.2018.02.036.

  2. Jakubowicz, D., Barnea, M., Wainstein, J. and Froy, O. (2013), High Caloric intake at breakfast vs. dinner differentially influences weight loss of overweight and obese women. Obesity, 21: 2504-2512. https://doi.org/10.1002/oby.20460

  3. Ofori-Asenso R, Owen AJ, Liew D. Skipping Breakfast and the Risk of Cardiovascular Disease and Death: A Systematic Review of Prospective Cohort Studies in Primary Prevention Settings. J Cardiovasc Dev Dis. 2019 Aug 22;6(3):30. doi: 10.3390/jcdd6030030. PMID: 31443394; PMCID: PMC6787634.



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