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Razvoj akupunkture v Avstraliji: 1. del



Skoraj eden izmed desetih Avstralcev je že prejel akupunkturno zdravljenje pri akupunkturistu in/ali zdravniku na zasebnih klinikah. Večina avstralskih zdravstvenih zavarovalnic ponuja rabat za akupunkturo. V avstralski zvezni državi Viktorija so zakonsko sprejeli pravila glede akupunkture. S strani Registracijskega odbora za kitajsko medicino je bilo uradno priznanih šest dodiplomskih programov, nekateri so bili uradno potrjeni tudi s strani Avstralske zveze za akupunkturo in kitajsko medicino. Prav tako so bile v Avstraliji izvedene številne klinične raziskave glede učinkov akupunkture na alergijski rinitis, bolečine in žensko zdravje. Nedavni tamkajšnji razvoj akupunkture prikazuje, da se skozi zadostno in primerno vrednotenje le-ta počasi začenja vključevati v običajno zdravstveno oskrbo.


Avtorji in ustanova

Charlie Xue*, Anthony Zhang, Angela Yang, Shuiqing Zhang, David Story

World Health Organisation Collaborating Centre for Traditional Medicine, Discipline of Chinese Medicine, School of Health Sciences, RMIT University, Bundoora,

Victoria

3083,Australia


Ozadje

Zgodovinske začetke akupunkture v Avstraliji lahko zasledimo v 1850-ih, ko so prišli prvi kitajski imigranti kot delovna sila na nahajališčih zlata [1]. Zdaj je akupunktura s strani splošne javnosti smatrana za eno izmed najbolj priljubljenih oblik komplementarnega zdravljenja in alternativne medicine (CAM) [2].V Avstraliji so bile prisotne tako rekoč štiri razvojne stopnje akupunkture.


  1. Obdobje samoupravljanja (1850-1960): Akupunktura je bila oblika nenadzorovane zdravstvene oskrbe.

  2. Obdobje profesionalnega razvoja (1970-1980): ustanovljena so bila akupunkturna združenja z namenom promocije akupunkturnega poklica in lajšanja kliničnih praks.

  3. Obdobje vzpostavitve standardov (1990-ta): univerze in zasebni kolidži so začeli ponujati urjenja za akupunkturiste. Akupunktura je v Avstraliji postala uveljavljena modaliteta CAM-a [3].

  4. Obdobje vzpostavljanja predpisov (od 2000 naprej): praksa akupunkture je postala subjekt obvezne registracije v zvezni državi Viktorija, Avstralija kot je zahteval Zakon o registraciji kitajske medicine 2000 [4], tega pa je nadomestil Zakon o registraciji zdravstvenih profesij 2005 [5].


Tu smo poudarili nedavne razvojne dosežke akupunkture v Avstraliji v smislu kliničnih praks, izobraževanja, raziskav in predpisov in ilustrirali, kako je akupunktura vključena v običajno vsakodnevno avstralsko zdravstveno oskrbo.


Uporabniki in izvajalci akupunkture v Avstraliji


L. 2005 je nacionalna raziskava na reprezentativni populaciji 1067 odraslih glede CAM-a pokazala, da se je skoraj eden izmed desetih (9,2%) Avstralcev v obdobju preteklih 12 mesecev poslužil akupunkturne storitve [2]. Vsako leto so Avstralci opravili deset milijonov obiskov akupunkturistov. Raziskava je prav tako prišla do sklepa, da so uporabniki akupunkture verjetneje rojeni v Avstraliji, dosegli terciarno izobrazbo, so pod okriljem zasebne zdravstvene zavarovalnice in živijo v zveznih državah New South Wales, Viktorija in Queensland [6]. Akupunkturo lahko nudi tako akupunkturist kot splošni zdravnik, ki je za to seveda izurjen. Anketa iz l. 2004, ki je bila izvedena na 636 izvajalcih zdravniških dejavnosti, je pokazala, da je akupunktura smatrana za eno izmed treh najbolj priljubljenih oblik CAM, ki jo uporabljajo tudi sami [7]. Skoraj en izmed petih (18%) splošnih zdravnikov je izvajal akupunkturo kot del primarne nudene oskrbe in 76% zdravnikov je napotilo svoje paciente akupunkturistu vsaj enkrat na mesec [7]. Glede na drugo raziskavo, ki je bila izvedena v Avstraliji na 220 porodničarjih in babicah, jih preko 70% le-teh obravnava akupunkturo kot koristno in varno za rabo med nosečnostjo [8]. Preko treh preteklih desetletij je bilo ustanovljeno veliko število združenj kitajske medicine in akupunkture, med katerimi je največja Australian Acupuncture and Chinese Medicine Association (AACMA) s preko 1400 člani [9].


Izvirni članek in vire lahko najdete na naslednji povezavi https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2684102/



prevod: Tanja Topić

vir fotografij: internet



Developments of acupuncture in Australia: Part 1


Almost one in ten Australians has received acupuncture treatment by acupuncturists and/or medical doctors in private clinics. The majority of Australian health insurance funds offer rebates for acupuncture. Statutory regulations for acupuncture have been implemented in the State of Victoria, Australia. Six acupuncture degree courses have been approved by the Chinese Medicine Registration Board of Victoria and/or accredited by the Australian Acupuncture and Chinese Medicine Association. Furthermore, a number of clinical trials of acupuncture on allergic rhinitis, pain and women’s health were carried out in Australia. Recent developments of acupuncture in Australia indicate that through adequate and appropriate evaluation, acupuncture begins to integrate into mainstream health care in Australia.


Authors and institution


Charlie Xue*, Anthony Zhang, Angela Yang, Shuiqing Zhang, David Story

World Health Organisation Collaborating Centre for Traditional Medicine, Discipline of

Chinese Medicine, School of Health Sciences, RMIT University, Bundoora,

Victoria 3083,

Australia


Background


The history of acupuncture in Australia can be traced back to the 1850s when the first Chinese immigrants arrived and worked in the gold fields of Australia [1]. Acupuncture is now considered by the general public as one of the most popular treatments of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) [2].


There have been four developmental stages of acupuncture in Australia.


  1. Self-management stage (1850s-1960s): Acupuncture was a form of unregulated health care.

  2. Professional development stage (1970s-1980s): Acupuncture associations were established to promote the acupuncture profession and facilitate clinical practices.

  3. Standard-setting stage (1990s): Universities and private colleges started offering acupuncture training. Acupuncture became an established modality of CAM in Australia [3].

  4. Regulation stage (2000 onwards): The practice of acupuncture is subject to mandatory registration in the State of Victoria, Australia as stipulated by the Chinese Medicine Registration Act 2000 [4] which was superseded by the Health Professions Registration Act 2005 [5].


Here, we highlight the recent developments of acupuncture in terms of clinical practices, education, research and regulations in Australia and illustrate how acupuncture is being integrated into mainstream health care in Australia.


Acupuncture users and practitioners in Australia


In 2005, a national survey on 1,067 representative adults in Australia on the use of CAM revealed that nearly one in ten (9.2%) Australians used acupuncture service over a 12-month period [2]. Australians made over ten million visits to acupuncturists every year. The study also concluded that acupuncture users were more likely to be born in Australia, having completed tertiary education, covered by private health insurance and living in the states of New South Wales, Victoria and Queensland [6].


Acupuncture can be provided by both acupuncturists and general medical practitioners with training in acupuncture. A 2004 survey on 636 medical practitioners showed that acupuncture was considered as one of the three most popular forms of CAM used by medical practitioners themselves [7]. Nearly one in five (18%) general medical practitioners practiced acupuncture as part of their primary care and 76% of medical doctors referred their patients to acupuncturists at least once a month [7]. Over 70% of obstetricians and midwives considered acupuncture to be beneficial and safe to use during pregnancy according to another study on 220 obstetricians and midwives in Australia [8].

Over the past three decades, a number of Chinese medicine and acupuncture associations have been established in Australia, among which the Australian Acupuncture and Chinese Medicine Association (AACMA) is the largest one in Australia with over 1,400 members [9].


The original article and reference can be found in this link

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2684102/

Storitve

064 259 185 | info@akupunkturatkm.com 
PE Novo mesto: Ulica talcev 9, 8000 Novo mesto
PE Ljubljana: Tacenska cesta 135a, 1000 Ljubljana

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