Faze življenja po Konfuciju

Updated: Nov 22, 2021

Učenje brez prestanka v skladu s konfucijanskimi prepričanji pomeni, da si v vseh življenjskih obdobjih prizadevamo za moralno popolno življenje in da se razvijemo v krepostnega človeka. Po Konfuciju je razlog za učenje obogatitev življenja in značaja.

Učenje v konfucijanskem smislu se razume in izvaja kot učenje zaradi učenja samega – v nasprotju z učenjem zaradi pridobivanja koristi. Šteje se, da je učenje zaradi pridobivanja koristi značilno za konkurenčno usmerjeno, industrializirano dojemanje današnjih zahodnih držav v kontekstu globalizacije, v njem pa so poudarjeni preživetje, konkurenca, posebne »trde« veščine in povezave s trgom.

Iskanje védenja je iskanje nravstvene popolnosti (Ren 仁) inTao (道) človeka, kar je način, kako ljudje delujejo v harmoniji z naravo. Vloga izobraževanja in neprestanega učenja je zagotoviti dostop do razvijanja uravnoteženega značaja, kar v konfucijanskem smislu pomeni stanje nravstvene popolnosti ali Ren. Povedano drugačne: potencial, da bi spoznali Ren, se pravi Tao človeka in sposobnost za delovanje Tao Neba, je mogoče gojiti in razviti prek izobraževanja in učenja, kar pa je proces za vse življenje.

Kreposten, moralen človek je v konfucijanskem smislu opredeljen kot Jun Zi (君子) – izobražena oseba visokih moralnih načel in z izjemnim znanjem, kar ji omogoča, da živi v skladu z načeli nravstvene popolnosti. Jun Zi ne le sprejema Ren, temveč tudi družbeno odgovornost, zato jo zanimajo socialna vprašanja. Jun Zi poskuša vselej najti priložnosti, da prek neprestanega učenja postane boljši človek, kar pomeni, da je to tudi Zhi (modrost 智). Modrost v konfucijanskem smislu pomeni razumevanje Neba in omejitev človeških bitij, poznavanje drugih, poznavanje samega sebe, sposobnost razlikovanja med prav in narobe, pomeni primerno ravnanje in to, da v zapletenih situacijah nismo zaskrbljeni. Konfucij je menil, da oseba ne more biti Jun Zi, ne da bi bila modra, to pa je mogoče doseči le prek neprestanega učenja.

Konfucij je življenje dojemal kot proces transformacije, ki teče prek različnih razvojnih faz, pri čemer ima vsaka faza svoje poslanstvo in potek. V Pogovorih nam Konfucij ponuja enega od najzgodnejših prikazov človekovega razvoja.

Učitelj je dejal: petnajst sem jih imel, ko je bila moja volja vsa naravnana na učenje, s tridesetimi sem se bil gotov, s štiridesetimi nisem imel nobenih dvomov več, s petdesetimi se mi je razodel Nebesni zakon, pri šestdesetih se mi je odprlo uho, s sedemdesetimi sem lahko sledil svojim srčnim željam, ne da bi prekoračil pravo mero.


Pri petnajstih: nauči se o življenju vse, česar se je mogoče naučiti. Konfucijanski pogled na učenje brez prestanka zajema osebnostno rast, socialni razvoj in politično udejstvovanje. Ponuja neutilitaren, holističen pogled na učenje brez prestanka, ki zajema vse vidike človekovega obstoja.

Pri tridesetih: bodi prepričan v svojo življenjsko usmeritev, v to, zakaj si tu, in v to, kar v tem času počneš. Tvoja stališča o svetu in nravstveni popolnosti bi morala biti v tem času popolnoma izoblikovana.

Pri štiridesetih: potrdi svoje dojemanje sveta, otresi se občutka zmedenosti in spodbujaj popolno jasnost. Razumeš, kam gre svet, in si jasen.

Pri petdesetih: spoznaj svojo usodo. Poznaš svoje notranje bistvo in njegov odnos do

zunanjega sveta in kako ta deluje, medsebojno razmerje med yinom in yangom, med mikrokozmosom in makrokozmosom. Poznati svojo usodo pomeni poznati svoje bistvo, duhovno notranjo naravo človeškega bitja. Vrneš se k svojemu duhovnemu bistvu.

Pri šestdesetih: »Skozi ušesa teče tok, ki se mu ne upirajo.« Kaj to pomeni? Čustveni pretresi, ki jih povzročijo izgovorjeno in besede drugih ljudi, se nas ne dotaknejo. Jeza, krivda in celo hvala so pogosto rezultat tega, kar izrečejo drugi (ali pa morda notranjega glasu). Zdaj pa se na to ne odzovemo več in se ne borimo. Nič se našega notranjega sveta, našega srca ne dotakne bolj kot to, kar je izgovorjeno v običajnem življenju. Naša ušesa so se vdala in skoznja teče tok. Ne reagiramo na čustvene dražljaje in ni nas mogoče premakniti. Ne zanima nas, kaj o nas govorijo drugi.

Pri sedemdesetih (in sčasoma več): sledi svojemu srcu, vendar ne krši pravil in običajev (naravnega ravnotežja) Neba in zemlje. Tvojemu srcu prav vse prinaša radost, vendar nisi sebičen. Živiš popolnoma sproščeno, tako svobodno kot majhen otrok.

 

Stages of life according to Confucius

According to Confucian beliefs, lifelong learning is an effort made throughout one’s life span to inculcate a morally excellent life and to develop into a virtuous person. The reason for engaging in learning, according to Confucius, is to enrich one’s life and character.

Learning in Confucian terms is understood and practiced as learning for the sake of learning itself, as opposed to learning for the sake of an instrumental purpose. Learning for an instrumental purpose is considered characteristic of the competition-oriented, industrialized notions in the contemporary West in the context of globalization, which emphasizes survival, competition, specialized hard skills, and connections to the marketplace.

The quest for knowledge is to search for humanity (Ren 仁) and Tao (道)of human, which is the way human beings act in harmony with the nature. The role of education and lifelong learning is to provide access to the process of developing a balanced character, which is the state of humanity or Ren in Confucian terms. In other words, the potential to know Ren, the Tao of human, and the ability to operationalize the Tao of heaven can be cultivated and developed through education and learning, which is a lifelong process.

A virtuous and moral person, in Confucian terms, is referred to as “Jun Zi (君子)” – an educated person with morality and outstanding knowledge to practice humanity. Jun Zi embraces not only Ren but also social responsibility, and is therefore concerned about social issues. Jun Zi always seeks opportunities to better oneself through continued learning, who therefore is also a person of Zhi (Wisdom 智). Wisdom, in Confucian terms, refers to the understanding of the will of heaven, the limitations of human beings, knowing others, knowing oneself, telling right from wrong, acting appropriately, and not feeling anxious in face of complexities. To Confucius, one cannot be a Jun Zi without wisdom, which can only be acquired through lifelong learning.

Confucius considered life as a process of transformation that moves through different developmental stages, with each stage having its own task and process. In The Analects, Confucius provides us with one of the earliest maps of human development.

The Master said, at 15 I set my heart upon learning. At 30, I had planted my feet firm upon the ground. At 40, I no longer suffered from perplexities. At 50, I knew what were the biddings of heaven. At 60, I heard them with docile ears. At 70, I could follow the dictates of my own heart; for what I desired no longer overstepped the boundaries of right.

At age 15- Learn everything there is to learn about life. The Confucian perspective of lifelong learning is personal growth, social development, and political participation. It offers a non-instrumental, holistic view of lifelong learning that encompasses all aspects of human existence.

Age 30- Be rooted in the direction of your life, why you are here and what you are doing in this lifetime. Your view of the world and humanity should be fully established at this time.

Age 40- Confirm your sense of the world; lose your sense of confusion and cultivate great clarity. You understand the way of the world and are clear.

Age 50- Know your destiny. Your internal root and its relation to the world outside and how this works. The inter-relationship of yin and yang, of microcosm to macrocosm. Knowing your destiny means knowing your root. The spiritual inner nature of the human being. We return to our spiritual root.

Age 60- “The ears are in the flow and don’t resist!” What does this mean? Emotional disturbances caused by language and what other people say do not stir us. Anger, blame and even praise typically come from what other people say (or maybe an inner voice.) So we no longer react or push back. There is nothing that moves our internal world, our heart, more than language in our normal everyday life. My ears have surrendered and are in the flow. Not reacting to emotional triggers, not being moved. Not concerned by what other people say about you.

Age 70 and more so as you age- Follow what your heart desires but don’t violate the rules and rituals (natural balance) of heaven and earth. Everything brings joy to your heart but you are not selfish. Live totally at ease, like the freedom of a little child.