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6 zdravih koristi japonske prehrane

Tradicionalna japonska prehrana je na nek način podobna tradicionalni kitajski prehrani osrednje in zahodne obalne regije, kjer so med glavnimi v izboru riž, kuhana in vložena zelenjava, ribe, meso.



Kot Kitajka iz Hong Konga lahko trdim, da so naše prehranske navade podobne japonskim zaradi naše tradicije, geografske lege in družbenih vplivov. Prav tako ne preseneča, da imata tako Japonska kot tudi Hong Kong eno izmed najdalje pričakovanih življenjskih dob.


Kakšne so prednosti tradicionalne japonske prehrane?

1. Znižanje tveganja kardiovaskularnih bolezni


Študija iz British Medical Journal [1] je odkrila, da se je pri ljudeh, ki so se bolj približali japonskim prehranskim smernicam [2]- prehrana, ki vsebuje veliko žitaric in zelenjave z zmerno količino živalskih produktov ter soje in minimalno količino sadja ter mlečnih izdelkov - znižalo tveganje za zgodnjo smrt zaradi srčne bolezni ali kapi. Ker je njihova prehrana po tradiciji bogata s sojo in ribami, bi lahko tudi to igralo znatno vlogo pri znižanju tveganja za kardiovaskularne bolezni. Japonci imajo prav tako najnižjo stopnjo debelosti med moškimi in ženskami ter dolgo pričakovano življenjsko dobo.

2. Japonska prehrana iz 1975 podaljšuje pričakovano življenjsko dobo pri miškah


Znanstveniki so različne skupine mišk hranili s tedenskimi meniji iz let 1960, 1975, 1990 in 2005, kar so zasnovali glede na narodno anketo o zdravju in prehrani na Japonskem. Živila so pripravili v uprašeni obliki. Odkrili so, da je prehrana iz 1975 privedla do dalj časa živečih miši z boljšim spominom in manj fizičnimi poškodbami, ki bi bile posledica staranja.


3. Japonski prehranski vzorec se povezuje z daljšim obdobjem preživetja brez invalidnosti pri splošno starejši populaciji [3]. 4. Trebušna maščoba pri posameznikih zmanjšana ob uživanju japonske prehrane iz 1975 [4]

Uživanje hrane po vzorcu in značilnostih prehranjevanja japonske prehrane iz leta 1975 bi lahko imelo pozitivne učinke na metabolizem maščob pri ljudeh s prekomerno telesno težo. Prav tako bi tudi lahko zmanjšala porast tveganja motenj, ki so povezana z metabolizmom, kot so debelost in sladkorna bolezen. 5. Japonska prehrana iz leta 1975 izboljšuje lipidne metabolične parametre pri mlajših odraslih [5] 6. Učinki japonske prehrane iz 1975 na črevesno mikrobioto pri mlajših odraslih [6]

Vsak osebek se je držal sebi primerne prehrane in užival hrano trikrat na dan v roku 28 dni. Nato so ocenili spremembe v flori črevesnih bakterij glede na stanje pred in po tem obdobju. Po uživanju japonske prehrane so se znatno spremenili štirje rodovi bakterij (neklasificiran Lachnospiraceae, Parabacteroides, Sutterella in neklasificiran Rikenellaceae). S korelacijsko analizo so odkrili razmerja med spremembami v teh rodovih ter znižanjem maščobnih odstotkov, maščobne mase in nivoja krvnih glutaminskih oksaloacetatnih transaminaz, krvnih trigliceridov in hemoglobina A1c. Ti rezultati sugerirajo, da so spremembe v črevesni flori vključene v nabor koristi japonske prehrane.


Torej - kakšna je skrivnost?

Priprava in uživanje obroka sta tako pomembna kot je pomembna zastopanost katerekoli skupine nutrientov. Japonski obroki sestojijo iz večih manjših obrokov, ki zagotavljajo pestrost okusov. Živila so običajneje kuhana na pari ali blago pokuhana kot pa ocvrta. Prav tako so začinjena z manjšo količino dodatkov, ki so bogati z okusom - prej kot s prekomerno količino soli ali sladkorja. Na kratko, precej verjetno je, da učinki japonske prehrane niso posledica nekih čarobnih lastnosti morske trave ali sojine omake, temveč bolj posledica osredotočenosti na uživanje raznovrstne prehrane, kjer so živila pripravljena na zdrav način in zaužita v zmernih količinah. Ob vsem tem pa je pomemben tudi poudarek na zelenjavi in stročnicah.

Viri [1] https://www.bmj.com/content/352/bmj.i1209 [2] http://www.fao.org/nutrition/education/food-based-dietary-guidelines/regions/countries/japan/en/ [3] https://academic.oup.com/jn/article/149/7/1245/5487581?login=true [4] https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/30985996/ [5] https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/29710042/ [6] https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/30502656/


prevod: Tanja Topić

vir fotografij: online


6 Health benefits of the Japanese diet


The traditional Japanese diet is somewhat similar to a traditional Chinese diet in the central and southern coastal region, with rice, cooked and pickled vegetables, fish and meat being stapled choices.


As a Chinese coming from Hong Kong, our dietary habit is quite similar to the Japanese due to our traditions, geographical location and social influences. And it comes no surprise that both Japan and Hong Kong have one of the highest life expectancies in the world.


What are the benefits of the traditional Japanese diet?

1. Reduced risk of cardiovascular disease

A study by the British Medical Journal [1] found that those who stuck to closer to the Japanese dietary guidelines [2] – a diet high in grains and vegetables, with moderate amounts of animal products and soy but minimal dairy and fruit – had a reduced risk of dying early from heart disease or stroke. As their diet is traditionally high in soy and fish this may also play a significant role in reduced risk of cardiovascular disease. The Japanese also have the lowest rates of obesity amongst men and women as well as long life expectancy. 2. The Japanese diet from 1975 prolongs life span in mice Scientists fed different groups of mice with weekly menus from the years 1960, 1975, 1990, and 2005 were reproduced based on the National Health and Nutrition Survey in Japan and prepared as powdered foods. They found this 1975 diet led to longer-lived mice, with better memory and fewer physical impairments as they aged.


3. The Japanese Dietary Pattern Is Associated with Longer Disability-Free Survival Time in the General Elderly Population [3]. 4. Abdominal Fat in Individuals with Overweight Reduced by Consumption of a 1975 Japanese Diet [4]

The intake of a diet with the characteristics of the 1975 JD may have beneficial effects on lipid metabolism in people with overweight and reduce the onset risk of metabolism-related disorders, such as obesity and diabetes. 5. The 1975 Type Japanese Diet Improves Lipid Metabolic Parameters in Younger Adults [5].

6. Effects of the 1975 Japanese diet on the gut microbiota in younger adults [6]

Each subject consumed their respective diet three times per day for 28 days and changes in intestinal bacteria before to after this period were evaluated. Four genera (unclassified Lachnospiraceae, Parabacteroides, Sutterella and unclassified Rikenellaceae) were significantly changed upon intake of the Japanese Diet. Based on correlation analysis, relationships were found between changes in these genera and decreases in fat%; fat mass; and levels of blood glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase, blood triacylglycerols and hemoglobin A1c. These results suggest that changes in intestinal bacteria are involved in the health benefits of the Japanese Diet.


So what’s the secret?

How meals are prepared and consumed is just important as any particulars of nutrients. Japanese meals are made up of several small dishes, providing a variety of flavours. Ingredients are more often steamed or simmered than fried. As well, they are seasoned with small amounts of intensely flavourful substances, rather than excess salt or sugar. In short, it may be that the benefits of the Japanese diet are not due to some magical quality of seaweed or soy sauce, but rather a focus on eating a variety of foods cooked in healthy ways in moderation, along with an emphasis on vegetables and legumes. [1] https://www.bmj.com/content/352/bmj.i1209 [2] http://www.fao.org/nutrition/education/food-based-dietary-guidelines/regions/countries/japan/en/ [3] https://academic.oup.com/jn/article/149/7/1245/5487581?login=true [4] https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/30985996/ [5] https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/29710042/ [6] https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/30502656/

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