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Ginseng in njegove koristi za zdravje



Ginseng je eno izmed najbolj priljubljenih zeliščnih zdravil na svetu. To počasi rastočo, nizko rastlino z mesnatimi koreninami, lahko klasificiramo na tri različne načine, in sicer glede na to, kako dolgo je rasla: sveža, bela ali rdeča. Svež ginseng je pobran preden doseže 4. leto rasti, medtem ko se belega pobere med 4.-6. letom rasti, rdečega pa po 6 letih ali več. Obstaja več vrst ginsenga, vendar je najbolj priljubljen ameriški ginseng (Panax quinquefolius) in azijski ginseng (Panax Ginseng).


Ključni TKM koncepti za ginsengovimi (Ren Shen) lastnostmi


Ginseng je eno izmed najpomembnejših in običajnih ‘poživljajočih zelišč za pomanjkanje qi’. Po naravi je topel, kar pomeni, da pomaga ljudem, ki imajo v svojem telesu preveč ‘hladnega’. Ravnotežje med jinom in jangom je ključen koncept zdravja v TKM. Pri ljudeh s preveč hladnega v telesu se pogosto kaže utrujenost, okončine so hladne, libido je nizek, krvna cirkulacija je slaba, imunski sistem je šibek, itd.


Ingver učinkuje na vranični, srčni in pljučni sistem. V TKM teoriji vranica prisostvuje pri prebavi, koaguliranju krvi in metaboluzmu tekočin v telesu. Poleg reguliranja krvnega pretoka za srce verjamejo,, da tudi hrani ‘duh’, kar se pravzaprav nanaša na vitalnost človeka. Za pljuča je mišljeno, da poleg dihanja kot ključni del sodelujejo v proizvajalni verigi qi energije in telesnih tekočin, ki negujejo telo.


Ginseng premore nešteto različnih koristi za zdravje, naštetih je le nekaj:


  • Bogat vir hranil: ginseng je bogat z antioksidanti, aminokislinami, vitamini, polisaharidi, peptidi in ginsenozidi, ki imajo neverjetne protivnetne koristi za zdravje [1].

  • Adaptogen: za ginseng se smatra, da je adaptogeno zelišče, to pa so zelišča, ki so zmožna pomagati telesu pri uravnovešanju stresnega odziva, hitrejšemu vzpostavljanju homeostaze, hkrati pa imajo lahko tudi nevrozaščitne in antidepresivne učinke ter delujejo proti utrujenosti [2].

  • Zmanjšuje nivo stresnih hormonov: zaradi svojih apoptotičnih učinkov lahko ginseng pomaga pri zmanjšanju stresnih hormonov, saj so odkrili, da regulira imunski odziv, tako kot tudi hormonske spremembe, do katerih pride zaradi stresa. Ginseng lahko pomaga pri vzpostavljanju homeostaze v telesu, medtem ko zmanjšuje simptome tesnobe [3].

  • Izboljšuje možganske funkcije: en izmed najbolj priljubljenih razlogov za rabo ginsenga je njegova zmožnost izboljševanja možganskih funkcij. Odkrili so, da ginseng pomaga pri izboljšanju kognitivne zmogljivosti in zmanjšuje psihično utrujenost [4]. Spojina K, metabolit, ki izvira iz ginsenozidov, je tudi pokazala nevrozaščitne koristi, prav tako pa so v študijah na živalih, ko so preučevali učinke spojine K na Alzheimerjevo bolezen, odkrili, da zmanjšuje vnetne markerje, [5].

  • Krepi imunski sistem: če stremite k izboljšanju imunskega sistema, bi morda želeli razmisliti o dodajanju ginsenga k svoji rutini prehranskih dodatkov. Raziskave so pokazale, da to zelišče koristi kot preventiva proti simptomom gripe in prehlada [6].

  • Izboljšuje plodnost: druga dobro poznana korist ginsenga ima opraviti z zdravjem rodil. Odkrili so, da ginseng izboljšuje kakovost spermijev zaradi ginsenozidnih spojin, ki jih premore ginseng; prav tako so odkrili, da pomaga pri zdravljenju spolne disfunkcije [7].

  • Tesnoba in depresija: drug običajen razlog, zakaj ljudje uporabljajo ginseng, so simptomi tesnobe in depresije. Študije so odkrile, da ginseng lahko pomaga kot oblika preventive proti stanjem, povezanih s stresom, in regulira telesni odziv na stres [3].

  • Zvišuje raven energije in preprečuje utrujenost: številni ljudje uporabljajo ginseng kot obliko podpore energiji in izboljšave telesne vzdržljivosti med vadbo [8]. Če trpite zaradi nizke ravni energije, je ginseng lahko odlična naravna možnost za zvišanje nivoja energije.



Ni vsak primeren za uživanje ginsenga - če rabljen neprimerno, se lahko pojavijo neugodni stranski učinki


Za ginseng se smatra, da je varen za večino ljudi. Četudi ginseng kaže kopico pozitivnih učinkov, ni raba tega močnega zelišča primerna za vsakogar. Raba TKM zelišč naj bo vedno vodena s strani profesionalnega zeliščarja.


Učinki obogatitve qi energije lahko uidejo izpod nadzora in potem lahko pride do naslednjih neželenih stranskih učinkov:

  • diareja;

  • nespečnost;

  • glavobol;

  • razdražljivost;

  • hiter srčni utrip;

  • visok ali nizek srčni pritisk;

  • občutljivost prs in vaginalne krvavitve.


Prenehajte z rabo ginsenga, če izkusite hujši kožni odziv - vročino, boleče grlo, otekanje obraza ali jezika, pekoč občutek v očeh, bolečino v koži, kateri sledi rdeč ali vijoličen kožni izpuščaj, ki se širi (še posebej na obrazu ali zgornjem delu telesa) in povzroča pojav mehurjev in lupljenje kože.


prevod: Tanja Topić

vir fotografij: internet


Reference:

[1] Kim JH, Yi YS, Kim MY, Cho JY. Role of ginsenosides, the main active components of Panax Ginseng, in inflammatory responses and diseases. J Ginseng Res. 2017;41(4):435‐443. doi:10.1016/j.jgr.2016.08.004

[2] Panossian A, Wikman G. Effects of Adaptogens on the Central Nervous System and the Molecular Mechanisms Associated with Their Stress-Protective Activity. Pharmaceuticals (Basel). 2010;3(1):188‐224. Published 2010 Jan 19. doi:10.3390/ph3010188

[3] Lee S, Rhee DK. Effects of Ginseng on stress-related depression, anxiety, and the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis. J Ginseng Res. 2017;41(4):589‐594. doi:10.1016/j.jgr.2017.01.010

[4] Reay JL, Kennedy DO, Scholey AB. Single doses of Panax Ginseng (G115) reduce blood glucose levels and improve cognitive performance during sustained mental activity. J Psychopharmacol. 2005;19(4):357‐365. doi:10.1177/0269881105053286

[5] Oh J, Kim JS. Compound K derived from Ginseng: neuroprotection and cognitive improvement. Food Funct. 2016;7(11):4506‐4515. doi:10.1039/c6fo01077f

[6] Seida JK, Durec T, Kuhle S. North American (Panax quinquefolius) and Asian Ginseng (Panax Ginseng) Preparations for Prevention of the Common Cold in Healthy Adults: A Systematic Review. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. 2011;2011:282151. doi:10.1093/ecam/nep068

[7] Leung KW, Wong AS. Ginseng and male reproductive function. Spermatogenesis. 2013;3(3):e26391. doi:10.4161/spmg.26391

[8] Arring NM, Millstine D, Marks LA, Nail LM. Ginseng as a Treatment for Fatigue: A Systematic Review. J Altern Complement Med. 2018;24(7):624‐633. doi:10.1089/acm.2017.0361



Health Benefits of Ginseng


Ginseng is one of the most popular herbal medicines in the world. This slow-growing, short plant with fleshy roots can be classified three ways, depending on how long it is grown: fresh, white or red. Fresh Ginseng is harvested before 4 years, while white Ginseng is harvested between 4–6 years and red Ginseng is harvested after 6 or more years. There are many types of Ginseng, but the most popular are American Ginseng (Panax quinquefolius) and Asian Ginseng (Panax Ginseng).


Key TCM concepts behind Ginseng (Ren Shen)'s properties


Ginseng is one of the most important and common “Tonic herbs for Qi Deficiency”. It is warm in nature which means that Ginseng tends to help people who have too much "coldness" in their body. Balance between Yin and Yang is a key health concept in TCM. Those who have too much cold in their body often show tiredness, cold extremities, low on libido, poor circulation, weak immune system, etc.


Ginger works on the Spleen, Heart and Lung systems. In TCM the Spleen assists with digestion, blood coagulation and fluid metabolism in the body. In addition to regulating blood flow, the Heart is believed to be the store of the "spirit" which basically refers to someone's vitality. In addition to performing respiration, the Lungs are thought to be a key part of the production chain for Qi and the body fluids that nourish the body.


Ginseng holds countless different health benefits including:


  • Rich Source of Nutrients: Ginseng is rich in antioxidants, amino acids, vitamins, polysaccharides, peptides, and ginsenosides which hold incredible anti-inflammatory health benefits. [1]

  • Adaptogen: Ginseng is also considered an adaptogenic herb which are herbs that can help balance the body’s stress response, promote homeostasis, and may even hold neuroprotective, anti-fatigue, and anti-depressive effects. [2]

  • Reduce Stress Hormones: Due to its apoptogenic properties, Ginseng may also be able to help reduce stress hormones as it has been found to regulate the immune response as well as the hormonal changes that occur due to stress. Ginseng may be able to help promote homeostasis in the body while also reducing symptoms of anxiety. [3]

  • Boost Brain Function: One of the most popular uses of Ginseng is to help boost brain function. Ginseng has been found to help improve cognitive performance and reduce mental fatigue. [4] Compound K, a metabolite that comes from ginsenosides has also been found to hold neuroprotective benefits and has even been found to reduce inflammatory markers in animal studies when looking at the effects of compound K and Alzheimer’s disease.[5]

  • Boost Immune System: If you are looking to boost your immune system, you may want to consider adding Ginseng to your supplement routine. Studies have found this herb to be beneficial for preventing cold and flu symptoms. [6]

  • Improves Fertility: Another well-known benefit of Ginseng has to do with fertility health. Ginseng has been found to improve sperm quality due to the ginsenoside compounds in Ginseng, and this herb has also been found to help with the treatment of sexual dysfunction. [7]

  • Anxiety & Depression: Another common reason people use Ginseng is to help with symptoms of anxiety and depression. Studies have found that Ginseng may be able to help prevent stress-associated conditions and regulate the body’s response to stress. [3]

  • Boosts Energy & Prevent Fatigue: Many people use Ginseng to help support energy and improve exercise endurance. [8] If you suffer from low energy levels, Ginseng may be a great natural option to get your energy levels


Not everyone is suitable to use Ginseng--- adverse effects could occur if used improperly


Ginseng is thought to be safe for most people. Even though Ginseng shows plenty of positive effects, not everyone is suitable for using this powerful herb. The use of TCM herbs should always be under guidance of a professional herbalist.


The Qi enriching effects could get out of control and the following adverse effects could occur:


  • diarrhea;

  • insomnia;

  • headache;

  • irritability;

  • rapid heartbeat;

  • increased or decreased blood pressure;

  • breast tenderness and vaginal bleeding.


Stop using Ginseng if you have severe skin reaction--fever, sore throat, swelling in your face or tongue, burning in your eyes, skin pain, followed by a red or purple skin rash that spreads (especially in the face or upper body) and causes blistering and peeling.



Reference:

[1] Kim JH, Yi YS, Kim MY, Cho JY. Role of ginsenosides, the main active components of Panax Ginseng, in inflammatory responses and diseases. J Ginseng Res. 2017;41(4):435‐443. doi:10.1016/j.jgr.2016.08.004

[2] Panossian A, Wikman G. Effects of Adaptogens on the Central Nervous System and the Molecular Mechanisms Associated with Their Stress-Protective Activity. Pharmaceuticals (Basel). 2010;3(1):188‐224. Published 2010 Jan 19. doi:10.3390/ph3010188

[3] Lee S, Rhee DK. Effects of Ginseng on stress-related depression, anxiety, and the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis. J Ginseng Res. 2017;41(4):589‐594. doi:10.1016/j.jgr.2017.01.010

[4] Reay JL, Kennedy DO, Scholey AB. Single doses of Panax Ginseng (G115) reduce blood glucose levels and improve cognitive performance during sustained mental activity. J Psychopharmacol. 2005;19(4):357‐365. doi:10.1177/0269881105053286

[5] Oh J, Kim JS. Compound K derived from Ginseng: neuroprotection and cognitive improvement. Food Funct. 2016;7(11):4506‐4515. doi:10.1039/c6fo01077f

[6] Seida JK, Durec T, Kuhle S. North American (Panax quinquefolius) and Asian Ginseng (Panax Ginseng) Preparations for Prevention of the Common Cold in Healthy Adults: A Systematic Review. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. 2011;2011:282151. doi:10.1093/ecam/nep068

[7] Leung KW, Wong AS. Ginseng and male reproductive function. Spermatogenesis. 2013;3(3):e26391. doi:10.4161/spmg.26391

[8] Arring NM, Millstine D, Marks LA, Nail LM. Ginseng as a Treatment for Fatigue: A Systematic Review. J Altern Complement Med. 2018;24(7):624‐633. doi:10.1089/acm.2017.0361


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