Riž - izvor energije Qi

Riž je eden izmed najstarejših in najpomembnejših pridelkov na zemlji. Na podlagi arheoloških dokazov naj bi bil riž najprej udomačen v regiji doline reke Jangce na Kitajskem. Nedavni genetski dokazi kažejo, da vse vrste azijskega riža, tako indica kot japonica, izvirajo iz enega samega dogodka udomačevanja, ki se je zgodil pred 8.200–13.500 leti v regiji doline Biserne reke na Kitajskem. [1]

V kitajskem znaku je Qi 氣 kombinacija 气 (kroženje moči) in 米 (riž). Glede na to, da je Qi simbol virtualne energije, ni nobenega dvoma o pomembnosti riža v kitajski kulturi, pa tudi v tradicionalni kitajski medicini (TKM).

Zdravilne lastnosti riža v TKM

V tradicionalni kitajski medicini (TKM) je riž več kot le hrana. Riž se uporablja kot zdravilo v kombinaciji z drugimi zdravilnimi zelišči. Riž je enostaven in hiter za prebavo ter daje moč za presnovo. Okus riža je sladek in se šteje kot nevtralen po temperaturi.

TKM predlaga, da lahko riž izboljša prebavo, okrepi Qi vranice in želodca, usklajuje prebavni sistem in uravnava apetit.

Riž ima krepilen, zdravilen in preventiven učinek ter je zelo dostopen. Riževa juha ali znana kot congee je običajen zajtrk na Kitajskem. Riževa juha je "bolna hrana" številka ena za Kitajce. Ko zbolimo, namesto da bi pili limonado ali jemali vitaminske tablete, kot to počnejo Zahodnjaki, se tradicionalno odpravimo na skledo vroče riževe juhe. Je univerzalno zdravilo za najrazličnejše bolezni, kot so bolezni prebavil, alergije in gripe ali prehladi.

Dojenčkom, ki ne prebavljajo dobro materinega mleka, bomo obrok dopolnili in jih nahranili s čajem s praženim rižem. Basmati riž ali jasminov riž je aromatičen in boljši za ljudi z vlago, prekomerno telesno težo in drugimi stagncijskimi stanji.

[Oglejte si naš video o kuhanju riževe kaše]

Vrste in deli riža

Zanimivo in pomembno je vedeti, da se zdravilni riž od živilskega riža razlikuje glede na čas žetve. Riž, pobran do junija, se uporablja kot hrana, ki je bogatejša s toploto in vlažnostjo. Medtem ko se zdravilni riž pobira veliko kasneje, po oktobru. Zdravilni riž, znan kot Geng Mi 粳米, je bolj suh in manj lepljiv kot navaden riž. Medtem ko je navadni živilski riž primernejši za zagotavljanje aktivacijske moči, Geng Mi ponuja boljši učinek hlajenja in čiščenja, hkrati pa zagotavlja določeno energijsko hranilo.

Glede na zdravilni učinek se ne uporablja samo riževo zrno, ampak tudi drugi deli riževe rastline – korenine, kalčki, cvetovi, lupine, stebla, pepel stebel in slama – vsi imajo zelo različne učinke.

Kaljeni riž je pogosto zelišče v kitajski medicini. Kaljeni riž uporabljamo pri šibki prebavi in ​​slabem apetitu v primeru pomanjkanja vranice-trebušne slinavke. Ocvrti kaljeni riž je koristen za zdravljenje stagnacije hrane in lahko pomaga zmanjšati laktacijo pri doječih materah, ki imajo otekle boleče prsi.

Korenina lepljivega riža, Nuo Dao Gen 糯稻根, je zdravilno zelišče za zdravljenje prekomernega potenja.

Rdeči kvasni riž 紅麴米 je narejen s fermentacijo kuhanega riža na pari z glivami vrste Monascus. Klasični kitajski zeliščni učbeniki in kitajska farmakopeja, rdeči kvasni riž se običajno uporablja za odpravljanje motnosti, poživljanje krvnega obtoka in odpravljanje zastoja krvi. Farmakološke študije so pokazale, da ima rdeči kvasni riž številne biološke lastnosti s hipolipidemičnimi, proti-aterosklerotičnimi, proti-rakovimi, nevrocitoprotektivnimi, hepatoprotektivnimi, proti-osteoporotičnimi, proti-utrujenostnimi, proti-diabetičnimi, proti-debelostnimi, imunomodulatornimi, proti-vnetnimi proti-hipertenzivnimi in proti-mikrobnimi delovanji. [2] V dejanski praksi se rdeči kvasni riž ne uživa kot riž, ampak kot barvilo za hrano ali sestavina za mariniranje. Če kdo torej želi jesti rdeči kvasni riž, da bi preprečil raka ali nadomestil svoje tablete za holesterol, to morda ne bo praktična rešitev.

Ali lahko jem "beli riž"?

Večina azijskega prebivalstva, od Japonske, Koreje, Kitajske do Indije, Šrilanke in Tajske itd., riž je vedno bel riž. Imamo tudi druge posebne vrste riža, kot so lepljiv riž, rjavi riž, črni riž ali polnozrnati riž, vendar je že tisočletja glavna sestavina beli riž. Vse zdravilne in terapevtske lastnosti, o katerih smo razpravljali zgoraj, se danes imenujejo tudi beli riž. Na splošno je torej varno reči, da je beli riž zdrav z vidika TKM. Ne pozabite pa jesti vsega zmerno. Priporočena porcija žit mora biti približno 50 % vašega celotnega obroka.

[Preberite več o študiji prehranskega vnosa ogljikovih hidratov in umrljivosti, objavljeni v The Lancet]

[1] https://ricepedia.org/culture/history-of-rice-cultivation

[2] Rdeči kvasni riž: sistematičen pregled tradicionalne uporabe, kemije, farmakologije in nadzora kakovosti pomembne kitajske ljudske medicine. DOI:10.3389/fphar.2019.01449

 

Rice- the origin of Qi energy

Rice is one of the oldest and most important crops on earth. Based on archeological evidence, rice was believed to have first been domesticated in the region of the Yangtze River valley in China. Recent genetic evidence shows that all forms of Asian rice, both indica and japonica, come from a single domestication event that occurred 8,200–13,500 years ago in the Pearl River valley region of China. [1]

In the Chinese character, Qi 氣 is a combination of 气 (circulation of power) and 米 (rice). Considering Qi is a symbol of virtual energy, there is no doubt about the importance of rice in Chinese culture, as well as Traditional Chinese medicine(TCM).

The healing properties of rice in TCM

In Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM), rice is more than just a food. Rice is used as a remedy in combination with other medicinal herbs. Rice is easy and quick for digestion, giving the power for metabolism. The flavor of rice is sweet, and it is considered to be neutral in temperature.

TCM suggests that rice can improve digestion, strengthen the Qi of the Spleen and Stomach, coordinate the digestive system, and regulate appetite.

Rice has a strengthening, healing and preventive effect and is highly available. Rice soup, or known as congee is a common breakfast in China.Rice soup is the number one “sick food” for the Chinese people. When we get sick, instead of drinking lemonade or taking vitamin pills as the Westerners do, we traditionally go for a bowl of hot rice soup. It is a universal remedy for a wide variety of diseases, such as gastrointestinal diseases, allergies and flus or cold.

For infants who do not digest mother's milk well, we will top up their meal by feeding them roasted rice tea. Basmati rice or Jasmine rice is aromatic and considered better for people with dampness, overweight, and other stagnant conditions.

[Watch our rice congee cooking video]

Types and parts of rice

It is interesting and important to know that medicinal rice differs from food rice in terms of the time of harvest. The rice harvested up to June is used as food which is richer in warmth and moisture. While the medicinal rice is harvested much later, after October. The medicinal rice, known as Geng Mi 粳米, is drier and less sticky than regular rice. While the regular food rice is more suitable for providing activation power, Geng Mi offers better cooling and cleansing effect while providing certain energy nourishment.

With regard to a medicinal effect, not only the rice grain is used, but also other parts of the rice plant - roots, sprouts, flowers, husks, stems, ashes of stems and straw - all have very different effects.

Sprouted rice is a common herb in Chinese medicine. Sprouted rice is used for weak digestion and poor appetite in case of spleen-pancreas deficiency. Fried sprouted rice is helpful for treating food stagnation, and can help to reduce lactation for nursing mothers who have swollen painful breasts.

Glutinous Rice Root, Nuo Dao Gen 糯稻根, is a medicinal herb for treating excessive sweating.

Red Yeast Rice 紅麴米 is made by fermenting steamed rice with fungi of the Monascus species. Classical Chinese herbal textbooks and the Chinese Pharmacopoeia, Red Yeast Rice is commonly used for resolving turbidity, invigorating blood circulation, and resolving blood stasis. Pharmacological studies have revealed that Red Yeast Rice possesses many biological properties with hypolipidemic, anti-atherosclerotic, anti-cancer, neurocytoprotective, hepatoprotective, anti-osteoporotic, anti-fatigue, anti-diabetic, anti-obesity, immunomodulatory, anti-inflammatory, anti-hypertensive, and anti-microbial activities. [2] In actual practice, Red Yeast Rice is not eaten as a rice, but a food colouring or ingredient in marination. So if anyone wants to eat Red Yeast Rice to prevent cancer or replace their cholesterol pills, it might not be a practical solution.

Can I eat “white rice”?

A majority of Asian population, from Japan, Korea, China to India, Sri Lanka, and Thailand, etc, rice is always white rice. We do have other special species of rice like glutinous rice, brown rice, black rice or whole grain rice, but the main ingredient for millennia is white rice. All the healing and therapeutic properties we have discussed above also refer as white rice nowadays. So, in general, it’s safe to say that white rice is healthy from a TCM standpoint. Just remember to consume everything in moderation. The recommended portion of grains should be about 50% of your whole meal.

[Read more about Dietary carbohydrate intake and mortality study published in The Lancet]

[1] https://ricepedia.org/culture/history-of-rice-cultivation

[2] Red Yeast Rice: A Systematic Review of the Traditional Uses, Chemistry, Pharmacology, and Quality Control of an Important Chinese Folk Medicine. DOI:10.3389/fphar.2019.01449