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Temelji prehrane in zeliščarstva TKM (3/4) - Lastnosti gibanja

Stari Kitajci so verjeli, da so zdravilna zelišča in hrana istega izvora. To pomeni le, da sta filozofija in način delovanja enaka, nikakor pa to ne pomeni, da bi moral vsak po svoje uživati zelišča. Na splošno je hrana bolj nežna in boljšega okusa, medtem ko so zelišča močnejša in imajo bolj raznolike učinke. Ne glede na to, ali gre za zelišča ali hrano, pa lahko oboje ob nepravilnem uživanju povzroči neravnovesja in posledično zdravstvene težave.

V sodobni prehranski znanosti se živila ocenjujejo glede na njihovo strukturo, ki sestoji iz beljakovin, ogljikovih hidratov, vitaminov in drugih hranilnih vrednosti. V prehrani kitajske medicine (ki vključuje tudi zelišča) se živilo ne vrednoti glede na strukturo, temveč glede na energijske lastnosti živila, njegov okus in gibanje, ki deluje na živi organizem.

Lastnosti gibanja v zeliščarstvu TKM, znane tudi kot teorija dvigovanja, spuščanja, lebdenja in upadanja, se nanašajo na štiri smeri ali usmeritve zdravilnega delovanja. Dopolnjuje teoriji štirih narav in petih okusov ter ima bistveno vlogo pri celovitem razumevanju lastnosti kitajske zeliščne medicine in vodenju njene klinične uporabe. [Preberi več: Vaše telo je ekosistem, ne stroj]

Dvigovanje pomeni gibanje navzgor, v primerjavi s spuščanjem, ki pomeni gibanje navzdol. Lebdenje pomeni zunanje in navzven premikajoče se gibanje, medtem ko upadanje pomeni notranje in navznoter usmerjeno gibanje.

Teorija dvigovanja, spuščanja, lebdenja in upadanja je tesno povezana s funkcijami Zang-Fu sistema TKM in njihovim ustreznim gibanjem energij. Na učinke dvigovanja-spuščanja in lebdenja-upadanja snovi lahko vplivajo različni dejavniki, vključno s štirimi naravami in petimi okusi, teksturo in gostoto, metodami predelave, uporabo združljivosti in deli rastline.

V povezavi s petimi okusi ima pekoč okus lastnosti gibanja navzgor in navzven. Kisel, slan in grenak okus običajno premikajo navzdol. Sladek okus pa premika navznoter. Snovi z blagim okusom ali močnim aromatičnim vonjem gibljejo navzgor in navzven. Tiste, ki imajo močan okus in gosto teksturo, pomikajo navzdol in navznoter. Lažja ali redkejša živila se običajno gibljejo hitreje in razmeroma površinsko, medtem ko se težja ali gostejša živila običajno gibljejo počasneje in gredo globlje.

Na splošno so lastnosti gibanja odvisne od dela rastlin. Cvetovi so na primer lahki in rastejo navzgor, zato se gibljejo navzgor ali navzven. Medtem ko se korenine in plodovi, ki so težki in gosti, gibljejo navzdol in navznoter. Vendar obstajajo številne izjeme, kajti nekatera živila se lahko gibljejo v dve smer, npr. cimet lahko prodre globoko v ledvični sistem in prinese ognjeno energijo do srca. Tudi semena gredo navzgor, vendar najprej navznoter. Listi rastline najprej rastejo navzgor, nato pa sčasoma padejo navzdol. Pri uporabi listov rastlin, na primer listov mete, zelene zelenjave ali čaja, bo od načina priprave odvisno, katero vrsto gibanja želimo. O tem bomo podrobneje razpravljali, ko bomo kasneje pripravili uvod o čaju.

Tako živila kot začimbe lahko po TKM izbiramo in pripravljamo glede na to, ali želimo dvigniti raven energije v telesu, ga očistiti ali uravnavati. Vse te lastnosti so v dinamičnem ravnovesju, kar pomeni, da se nenehno spreminjajo. Prilagoditi jih moramo glede na letni čas, način kuhanja ali trenutno zdravstveno stanje. Da bi večino časa ohranili ravnovesje, potrebujemo vsako od lastnosti v zmernih količinah. [Preberi več: Pomanjkanje Qi energije: kaj to je in kako jo obvladati?] [Preberi več: Hrano je potrebno skuhati – tradicionalna kitajska medicina pojasni prebavni sistem]

Bolezni se lahko patološko razvijejo na zgornjem, spodnjem, zunanjem ali notranjem delu telesa ter se lahko razvijejo navznoter ali navzven. Zato je treba zelišča, ki dvigujejo, spuščajo, lebdijo ali upadajo, predpisati glede na prizadeto območje in patogenezo.

"Negativno naraščanje zdravite z zaviranjem, padanje zdravite z dvigovanjem" - Kanon interne medicine Rumenega cesarja (黃帝內經 Huáng Dì Nèi Jing)

Dvigajoča zelišča, ki lahko dvigujejo in zvišujejo, se uporabljajo predvsem za vzorce upadanja. Spuščajoča zelišča, ki lahko spuščajo in zavirajo, se uporabljajo predvsem pri motnjah zaradi presežka qija, ki gre navzgor ali patogenega ognja, ki plamti navzgor. Na primer, lebdeča kitajska zdravila v glavnem delujejo navzgor in navzven s povečevanjem janga in se uporabljajo za zdravljenje prehlada ali vrtoglavic zaradi šibkosti. Upadajoča kitajska zdravila večinoma delujejo navzdol in navznoter, tako da zavirajo jang, in se uporabljajo za zdravljenje kolcanja, bruhanja in nespečnosti zaradi hiperaktivnosti.

Kitajska teorija lastnosti zelišč je zelo strnjen koncept narave zelišč in zdravilnih učinkov, ki odražajo značilnosti delovanja zelišč na človeško telo. Je kompleksen, logičen in analitičen model mehanizmov vnosa snovi v človeško telo, zato služi kot temelj mogočne kitajske zeliščne medicine. [Preberi več: Temelji prehrane in zeliščarstva TKM (1/4)- Štiri narave] [Preberi več: Temelji prehrane in zeliščarstva TKM (2/4) - Pet okusov]

 

Foundation of TCM dietary and herbology (3/4)- Movement Properties

The ancient Chinese believed that medicinal herbs and food are of the same origin. This only means that the philosophy and action mechanism are the same, and it does not mean that everyone should eat herbs in their own way. In general, food is more tender and tastes better, while herbs are stronger and more varied in effect. However, whether it is herbs or food, when consumed improperly, both could cause imbalances and result in health issues.

In modern nutritional science, food are evaluated according to their structure, which consists of proteins, carbohydrates, vitamins and other nutritional values. In the Chinese medicine dietary (which also includes herbs), the living is not evaluated according to the structure, but according to the energetic properties of the food, its flavour and movement that act on a living organism.

The movement properties of TCM herbology, also known as the theory of ascending, descending, floating and sinking refers to four directions or trends of medicinal actions. Complementary to Four Natures and Five Flavors theories, it plays an essential role in comprehensively understanding the properties of Chinese herbology and in guiding its clinical applications. [Read more: Your Body as a Garden]

Ascending means upward moving action, verse the descending downward moving action. Floating means the external and outward moving action, verse the sinking internal and inward moving action.

The theory of ascending, descending, floating and sinking is closely related to TCM systems Zang-Fu functions and their corresponding energies movement. The ascending-descending and floating-sinking effects of substances can be affected by various factors including Four Natures and Five Flavors, texture and density, processing methods, compatibility application, and the parts of the plant.

In terms of the Five Flavours, pungent flavour has upward and outward moving properties. Sour, salty, and bitter are generally downward moving. Sweet flavour is inward moving. For substance with light taste or strong aromatic fragrance, they are upward and outward moving. Those that are heavy in taste and dense in texture, they are downward and inward moving. Lighter or thinning food tends to move faster and relatively superficial; while heavier or denser food tends to move slower and go deeper.

In general, the part of the plants determines the movement properties. For example, the flowers are light and upward growing so they tend to move upwards or outwards. Meanwhile, the roots and fruits, which are heavy and dense, tend to move downwards and inwards. However, there are many other exceptions, and some foods can move in two directions, e.g. cinnamon can reach deep into the kidney system and bring fiery energy up to the heart. Seeds also go upward but first they go inward. The leaves of a plant first grow upward then eventually fall downward. In the application of leaves to plants like mint leaf, green vegetables or tea, the way of preparation will determine which kind of action we desire. We could discuss further when we make an introduction about tea in the future.

According to TCM, both foods and spices can be selected and prepared according to whether we want to raise the energy level in the body, cleanse the body or regulate it. All these characteristics are in a dynamic balance, which means it is constantly changing. We should have adjustment according to the season, cooking method, or current state of health. In order to maintain a balance in most of the time, we need each of the properties in moderation. [Read more: Qi deficiency: What is it and how do you manage it?] [Read more: Cook your food - digestive system explained in Traditional Chinese medicine]

Pathologically, diseases may develop on the superior, inferior, exterior, or interior part of the body, and may develop inward or outward. Therefore, herbs that tend to ascend, descend, float, or sink should be prescribed in line with affected area and pathogenesis.

“Treat adverse rising by inhibition, treat fallen by raising” -The Yellow Emperor’s Inner Classic (黃帝內經 Huáng Dì Nèi Jing)

Ascending herbs, capable of raising and lifting, are mainly used for sinking patterns. Descending herbs, capable of downbearing and suppressing, are mainly used for disorders due to the overflow of upward Qi or the pathogenic fire flaming upward. For instance, floating Chinese medicines mainly act upward and outward by increasing yang and are used to treat cold or dizziness due to weakness. Sinking Chinese medicines mainly act downward and inward by suppressing yang, and are used to treat hiccups, vomiting, and insomnia due to hyperactivity.

Chinese herbal property theory is a highly summarized concept of herbal nature and medicinal effect, which reflect the characteristics of herbal actions on the human body. It is a complex, logical and analytical model of mechanisms of substances intake inside the human body, and therefore, serve as the foundation of the powerful Chinese herbal medicine. [Read more: Foundation of TCM dietary and herbology (1/4)- Four natures] [Read more: Foundation of TCM dietary and herbology (2/4)- Five flavours]


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