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Vegetarijanska prehrana - možna zdravstvena tveganja, če neprimerna

V zadnjih letih postajata vegetarijanska ali celo veganska prehrana vse bolj priljubljeni, kjer kot pogost motiv zasledimo skrb za zdravje. Čeprav se v medijih vegansko prehrano pogosto oglašuje kot ‘’bolj zdravo’’, tega ne odražajo vedno znanstvene raziskave, prav tako pa tega ne opažam v svoji vsakodnevni klinični praksi.



Nekatere raziskave so sicer pokazale, da imajo veganske diete pozitivne učinke na zdravje. Sem spadajo nižja tveganja za bolezni srca, sladkorno bolezen in divertikularne bolezni. Vendarle pa je nedavna študija pokazala, da imajo vegani višje tveganje za zlome, vegani in vegetarijanci skupaj pa večje tveganje za hemoragično kap.


Skrajno prehranjevanje


1. Stročnični viri beljakovin lahko zvišajo tveganje za pojav prekomerno prepustnega črevesja

Ker veganska prehrana izključuje vse oblike živalskih beljakovin, vključno z mesom, ribami, jajci in mlečnimi izdelki, se njeni pristaši pogosto obračajo k stročnicam kot rastlinskemu viru beljakovin. Stročnice imajo visoko vsebnost antinutrientov, vključno z lektini in fitati, ki lahko povečajo prepustnost črevesja, kar drugače imenujemo tudi puščajoče črevesje.


2. Nevarnost anemije zaradi pomanjkanja hemskega železa

Anemija oz. pomanjkanje železa je najpogostejše prehransko pomanjkanje na svetu in tako vegani kot tudi vegetarijanci so bolj izpostavljeni tveganju za pojav tega stanja. Rastlinska hrana sicer vsebuje neko obliko železa, ki se imenuje nehemsko železo. Slednjega telo absorbira veliko manj. Anemija s pomanjkanjem železa lahko povzroči resne simptome, vključno z utrujenostjo. Ženske v rodni dobi se morajo zavedati, kako lahko veganska ali vegetarijanska prehrana hitro privedeta do anemije.


Če ste anemični, vam lahko pri lajšanju pomaga TKM, Preberite si tukaj, kako.


3. Vegetarijanci in vegani imajo lahko višje tveganje za možgansko kap [1]

Študija EPIC-Oxford je velik dolgoročni raziskovalni projekt, ki se ukvarja s prehrano in zdravjem. Raziskovalci iz Združenega kraljestva so skoraj dve desetletji analizirali tveganja za kap in ostale zdravstvene težave med 50.000 ljudmi, kjer so opazovali njihovo prehrano. Analizirane so bile tudi vrste možganske kapi, vključno s krvavitvijo v možganih (hemoragična možganska kap) in nekrvavitveno možgansko kapjo (ishemična možganska kap). V primerjavi z jedci mesa:

  • je bila pri pesketarijancih pojavnost srčnih bolezni (na primer angine ali srčnega napada) 13% nižja

  • je bila pri vegetarijancih pojavnost bolezni srca za 22% nižja

  • je bila stopnja možganske kapi med vegetarijanci 20% večja. Vendar je bilo splošno tveganje majhno in je znašalo tri dodatne primere na 1.000 ljudi v desetih letih.

  • je bilo med vegetarijanci večje tveganje za možgansko kap večinoma posledica hemoragične možganske kapi.

  • večjega tveganja za možgansko kap pri pesketarijancih niso opazili.


4. Veganom grozi razvoj pomanjkanja vitamina B12, ki ima lahko nepopravljive učinke, če ga ne obravnavamo

Po podatkih Ameriškega nacionalnega inštituta za zdravje lahko številne simptome pomanjkanja vitamina B12 zamenjamo z drugimi stanji, kot so izguba teže, izguba apetita, zaprtje, utrujenost, šibkost in anemija. Nekateri nevrološki simptomi te pomanjkljivosti, ki so potencialno nepopravljivi, vključujejo otrplost ali mravljinčenje v rokah in nogah, težave z ravnotežjem in celo demenco.


5. Pomanjkanje holina lahko vpliva na spomin, razpoloženje in nadzor mišic

Veganom lahko primanjkuje holina, ki je ključno hranilo za zdravje možganov. Pogosto ga najdemo v jajcih, mleku in govedini. Vse rastlinske in živalske celice potrebujejo holin, da ohranijo svojo strukturno celovitost. Poleg tega je holin potreben za proizvodnjo acetilholina; pomembnega nevrotransmiterja za spomin, razpoloženje, nadzor mišic in druge funkcije možganov ter živčnega sistema. Holin ima tudi pomembno vlogo pri uravnavanju izražanja genov, signalizaciji celične membrane, transportu in presnovi lipidov ter zgodnjem razvoju možganov.



Prehranski dodatki niso vedno učinkoviti in praktični

Medtem ko lahko dodatke železa jemljemo za odpravo ali preprečevanje anemije, večina žensk ne mara jemanja dodatkov železa zaradi možnih negativnih stranskih učinkov, vključno z zaprtjem. Mnogi se odločijo za vegetarijanske beljakovinske dodatke; oglejmo si jih pobližje. Beli riž vsebuje približno le 4% beljakovin, rjavi riž pa nekje med 5% in 9%. Koliko riža potrebujete za pridobitev zadostne količine beljakovin in koliko dodatne vode, goriv in drugih virov vložite v proizvodnjo v tem procesu, ki lahko še kako drugače škodujejo našemu okolju?


Veganska prehrana ni trajnostna ali praktična za vsakogar

Vsaki dieti, ki vključuje popolno izključitev več skupin živil, je težko slediti in ne deluje pri vseh. Nekateri verjamejo, da je veganstvo (ali katera koli posebna prehrana) edina pot do zdravja, kar preprosto ni res. Veganska prehrana ne pomeni nujno, da je zdrava, saj po definiciji ne izključuje veliko predelane hrane, sladkorja ali uvoženega sadja. Samo poglejte priljubljenost ponarejenega mesa, ki je izjemno predelano in ni nikakor nujno zdravo. Ob tem pa so potrebne velike emisije ogljika za uvoz banan ali avokada samo zato, da bi se izognili bližje pridelanim jajcem iz proste reje. Če želite izvedeti več o primerni prehrani, si lahko o tem preberite na tej povezavi.


vir: [1] Tong T Y N, Appleby P N, Bradbury K E, Perez-Cornago A, Travis R C, Clarke R et al. Risks of ischaemic heart disease and stroke in meat eaters, fish eaters, and vegetarians over 18 years of follow-up: results from the prospective EPIC-Oxford study BMJ 2019; 366 :l4897 doi:10.1136/bmj.l4897



prevod: Tajda Kolenc

vir fotografij: online



 

Potential health risks on an unsuitable vegetarian diet



Vegetarian or even Vegan diet has gained growing popularity in recent years, health is often cited as a popular motive. Although vegan diets are often touted as being “healthier” in the media, this isn’t always reflected by scientific research and not observed in my daily practice.


While some research has shown that vegan diets have positive health effects, such as lower risks of heart disease, diabetes and diverticular disease, a recent study also showed that vegans may have a higher risk of fractures, and vegans and vegetarians combined may have a higher risk of haemorrhagic stroke.


Extreme Dieting


Some people may thrive on a vegan or plant-based diet for various reasons which we totally respect. However, it should be noted that such an approach is considered an extreme diet because of how many foods it excludes, as well as the potential for nutritional deficiencies. People opting for their choices should be aware of the possible risks and long-term effects.


1. Legume protein sources can increase the risk of leaky gut


Since a vegan diet excludes all forms of animal protein including meat, fish, eggs, and dairy, people following a vegan diet often turn to legumes as a plant-based protein source. Legumes have high levels of antinutrients including lectins and phytates, both of which can increase intestinal permeability, also called leaky gut.


2. Risk of anemia due to a lack of heme iron


Iron-deficient anemia is the most common nutritional deficiency in the world, and both vegans and vegetarians are at higher risk of this condition. While plant foods contain a form of iron, it is called non-heme iron and it is much less absorbable by the body. Iron-deficient anemia can lead to serious symptoms including fatigue, and women of child-bearing age should be aware of how a vegan or vegetarian diet can quickly lead to anemia.


If you have anemia, TCM might help you to manage your condition. Read here how.


3. Vegetarians and vegans may have an increased risk of stroke [1]


EPIC-Oxford study is a major long-term research project looking at diet and health. Researchers in the United Kingdom analyzed the risk of stroke and other health problems for nearly two decades among nearly 50,000 people based on the diets they followed. The types of stroke were also analyzed, including bleeding into the brain (hemorrhagic stroke) and non-bleeding stroke (ischemic stroke). Compared with meat eaters:

  • rates of heart disease (such as angina or heart attack) were 13% lower in pescatarians

  • rates of heart disease were 22% lower in vegetarians

  • rates of stroke were 20% higher among vegetarians. However, the overall risk was small, equal to three extra cases per 1,000 people over 10 years.

  • the higher stroke risk among vegetarians was mostly due to hemorrhagic stroke

  • the higher stroke risk was not observed among pescatarians.


4. Vegans are at risk of developing a vitamin-B12 deficiency, which can have irreversible effects if left untreated


According to the American National Institutes of Health, many vitamin-B12-deficiency symptoms can be mistaken for other conditions such as weight loss, appetite loss, constipation, fatigue, weakness, and anemia. Some neurological symptoms of this deficiency that are potentially irreversible include numbness or tingling in the hands and feet, issues with balance, and even dementia.


5. Insufficient choline could influence memory, mood and muscle control


Vegans may find themselves deficient in choline, a crucial nutrient for brain health commonly found in eggs, milk and beef. All plant and animal cells need choline to preserve their structural integrity. In addition, choline is needed to produce acetylcholine, an important neurotransmitter for memory, mood, muscle control, and other brain and nervous system functions. Choline also plays important roles in modulating gene expression, cell membrane signaling, lipid transport and metabolism, and early brain development.



Supplements are not always efficient and practical


While iron supplements can be taken to help reverse or prevent anemia, most women dislike taking iron supplements because of potential negative side effects including constipation. Many people opt for vegetarian protein supplements but let’s take a closer look. White rice contains only around 4% protein and brown rice somewhere between 5% and 9%. How much rice do you need to extract enough protein and in this process how much extra water, fuels and other resources are put into the production which might in some other way harm our environment?


The vegan diet isn't sustainable or practical for everyone


Any diet that involves entirely eliminating multiple food groups can be difficult to follow and it doesn't work for everyone. Some people believe that veganism (or any other diet in particular) is the only way to be healthy and that's simply not true. A vegan diet doesn’t necessarily mean it’s healthy since it by definition does not exclude a lot of processed foods, sugar, or imported fruit. Just look at the popularity of fake meats which are incredibly processed and not necessarily healthy by any stretch of the imagination. And the heavy carbon footprint to import banana or avocado just so to avoid the nearby produced free-range eggs.


To know more about a suitable diet (https://www.akupunkturatkm.com/zdravaprehrana)


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